Engines: Power hungry
By Sandy Guthrie22 March 2017
It is a competitive world for engine companies as machine manufacturers have exacting requirements for their latest models, demanding the best possible efficiency, while meeting the emissions regulations and still providing the necessary power.
Some make their own engines, of course, and there are many long standing relationships where engine producers and OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) have developed their offerings together over time.
The MTU name is well known as a manufacturer of engines for construction equipment, and has been used by JCB, among others, in the past, but they have not been used in excavators for construction – until now.
MTU engines are produced by Rolls-Royce Power Systems – formerly known as Tognum. Now, for the first time, Rolls-Royce will be supplying MTU engines for use in construction excavators, having won an order from UK-based JCB.
MTU’s 1000 series engines are compliant with EU Stage IV and EPA Tier 4 Final emissions legislation, and are now to be used to power new excavators in JCB’s JS 300, JS 330 and JS 370 series.
MTU has been supplying Series 4000 engines for huge mining excavators from different manufacturers for decades.
The JCB excavators weigh between 30 and 37 tonnes, and each is to be powered by a 6-cylinder Series 1000 inline engine from MTU delivering up to 210kW. JCB’s new 457 wheeled loader, which was launched on the market two years ago, is also driven by MTU Series 1000 units.
Tim Burnhope, JCB chief innovation and growth officer, said, “JCB already uses MTU engines in its flagship 457 wheeled loaders. The introduction of the engine into three of our JS excavators will offer customers fuel savings of up to 10%.”
Bernd Krüper, vice president industrial business including construction and agriculture at MTU, added, “We are very proud that JCB is choosing to endorse our EU Stage IV-compliant units. This is another step forward in our long and successful partnership.”
Stage V regulations
With Stage V off-highway emission regulations expected to come into force in 2019, MTU introduced its Emission Flex Package last year. It is designed to enable engines to operate in countries with very different emission requirements
MTU’s 1000 to 1500 series engines have been developed jointly by MTU and Daimler, based on Daimler commercial vehicle engines, to meet EU Stage V regulations. MTU said they were expected to be available in the 100 to 480kW power range in good time for the planned introduction of the EU Stage V emission standards.
The MTU engines meet the new emission limits, which will also apply to soot particles, using advanced internal engine technology, an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system and an additional diesel particulate filter (DPF).
JCB has invested £10 million (€11.8 million) in its own UK engine plant as it gears up to begin full production of cylinder heads and blocks for the first time.
The Derbyshire, UK, factory has installed new CNC machining centres and associated automated processes at the site which it said would give outstanding finished accuracy in-house. The investment will also give the company the capacity to produce 45,000 engine sets a year.
Meanwhile, production of a brand-new fuel-efficient JCB engine is set to get underway following the culmination of a £31 million (€35.5 million) investment programme that began in 2011.
A brand new 3 litre engine has been launched – the third engine line to be launched by JCB since production first started in 2004 at JCB Power Systems, and it joins the 4.4, 4.8 and 7.2 litre models.
JCB CEO Graeme Macdonald said, “It is hard to believe that, just over 12 years ago, JCB didn’t make engines. Today, JCB has produced 400,000 high-performance diesel engines, leading the way with a purpose-built range which saves fuel, is clean and highly efficient.”
The new 3 litre JCB DieselMax engine claims to use up to 8% less fuel than the 4.4 litre JCB engine. The new 3 litre JCB430 DieselMax engine is also 30% lighter than the 4.4 litre EcoMax engine and has been designed specifically for mid-range construction and industrial equipment operating cycles.
Saying that the new engine had been designed for maximum durability, JCB said it featured a cast iron bedplate structure and a rear-mounted geartrain, for long service life and low operating noise.
Launched initially with 55kW at Stage IIIB/Tier 4 Final, the 3.0 litre engine produces 400Nm of torque from 1,300rpm.
JCB said the engine met the relevant emissions legislation without any requirement for a DPF, SCR or any form of exhaust additive or aftertreatment.
Scania said it had a range of fuel-efficient engines adhering to Tier 4 final and Stage V emission legislations, as well as a strong service offering.
The most recent addition to Scania’s broad power generation range is a 9-litre 5-cylinder Tier 4 final-compliant engine. It uses Scania’s aftertreatment system with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and SCR, without a DPF.
Other exhibits which will be on show at ConExpo, in Las Vegas, US, in March, will include the 13-litre 6-cylinder inline and the 16.4-litre V8 engine. All of these comply with the strictest emission legislations, including Tier 4 final and Stage V.
Scania introduced its first Tier 4 final compliant solutions in 2012 and has continuously updated them since then. The first Stage V compliant solutions from Scania were presented in April 2016.
Scania’s approach to aftermarket service includes continuous and extensive training programmes for service technicians, as well as 24/7, 365-day support through the Scania Assistance service that it said helped businesses maintain high uptime and productivity.
Scania’s products are all part of a modular system that it said provided tried and tested parts which were built in large series, drawing on the company’s experience in industrial and marine applications as well as from the truck and bus industries.
Yanmar said its new TNV engine series had been developed to satisfy customer demand while complying with the strict emission regulations.
Yanmar said that its advanced combustion technology using a common rail injection system and cooled exhaust gas recirculation, controlled by a special correction method, were used to achieve better engine performance. An exhaust aftertreatment system is adopted for cleaner emissions.
A total engine management system using Yanmar’s original software is said to maintain optimal engine performance by itself, by adjusting the engine operating parameters automatically, based on physical models. The company said it also helped to achieve reliable DPF regeneration using a special regeneration strategy without changing the feel of engine operation. It also has the advantage of enabling very flexible designs, it said.
Yanmar pointed out that Tier 4 regulations for the US, and Stage 3B regulations for the EU reduced the emission of particulate matter (PM) to one tenth of the previous regulations.
It added that in Switzerland, regulations had been introduced for particulate number (PN) – the number of PM. This is part of a trend of strengthening regulation of PM in particular.
Yanmar said it had been working collectively as a company and using its diesel combustion technologies cultivated over the years. The result was the market launch in 2013 of the new TNV engine series, which complies with the emission regulations.
Its TNV engines use a DPF to reduce the PN and achieve the regulation values, it said. Yanmar claimed that as a result, in the 19 to 37kW output range, this engine was the first in the world to acquire certification for complying with the PN regulations enacted by Switzerland.
It added that it should be noted that PN regulations were under discussion in Europe to be introduced in the Stage V regulations.
Deutz has concluded a long-term agreement to supply the Putzmeister Group with diesel engines of between 2.2 and 12 litres, which the engine maker said continued years of successful collaboration between the two companies.
To meet the next level of emissions regulations, Putzmeister has opted to install Deutz Stage V-ready engines in its floor screed and concrete pumps, which are to be progressively launched in the market this year.
For its floor screed pumps, German-based Putzmeister has chosen the compact Deutz TD 2.2, which will replace the currently installed Deutz D 2011 engine. Deutz engines with cubic capacities of between 2.9 and 12 litres will be used for the concrete pumps.
Matthias Ruppel, CEO of Putzmeister Concrete Pumps, said, “Deutz’s worldwide service network provides exactly the right support for our machines. The Deutz engine portfolio covers both the highly regulated European market and numerous other regions, some of which have widely differing legal requirements. This allows us to serve every market while working with just one engine supplier, reducing both costs and complexity.”
Michael Wellenzohn, member of the Deutz board of management for sales/service and marketing, added, “Our product range is ideally prepared for this challenge.”
Deutz decided early on to opt for exhaust aftertreatment using DPFs. As a consequence, while Stage IV still applies, Deutz Stage V-ready engines already have, either as optional equipment or fitted as standard, the DPF systems which will be needed for Stage V.
Deutz said this meant that it had years of experience and a wealth of soundly-based expertise in employing DPFs.
John Deere Power Systems has revealed its line-up of Stage V-ready engines too.
It said that using new catalyst technologies, emissions control calibrations and next generation aftertreatment solutions, the John Deere PowerTech engines would deliver greater package flexibility and offer easier installation over previous John Deere engines.
The John Deere line-up of Stage V-ready engines is said to have been optimised for increased torque response, low-speed torque, fluid efficiency, and responsive power at higher altitudes. The Stage V-ready engines from John Deere includes engine displacements of 2.9 litres, 4.5 litres, 6.8 litres, 9.0 litres and 13.5 litres with ratings of 36 to 448kW.
Martin Ryley, manager for marketing services and sales engineering in Europe, Africa and Middle East, and John Deere Power Systems, said, “We are well positioned to transfer our experience from various applications and operating conditions directly to our customers, giving them peace of mind.
“OEMs, regardless of location, are best served through timely and strategic preparation, and John Deere is ready to help them identify and implement the best solutions for their business.”
John Deere said that OEMs would benefit from the continual product improvements and advances it was making by retaining the same engine performance in a reduced package size. It said it had achieved reduced package sizes with next generation aftertreatment solutions that provided up to a 39% reduction in size and 57% reduction in weight.
Ryley added that to achieve Stage V emissions levels for engines in the 19kW to 560kW power band, manufacturers would have to use DPF technology.
“John Deere has been employing DPF technology since Interim Tier 4/Stage III B, resulting in more than 425 million hours of field experience,” he said. “We have demonstrated and proved the use of DPF technology in our engines for many internal and external off-highway applications, and will continually refine our system to make enhancements that strengthen application flexibility for OEM customers.”
He continued, “Our experience with DPF technology clearly sets a benchmark in the industry that positions John Deere as a leader capable of helping customers seamlessly transition to Stage V.
“That depth of experience extends throughout our distributor network and with all John Deere service dealers, giving us a distinct advantage.”
John Deere said that moving forward, it would look for additional opportunities to make improvements to existing technology. It said this would lead to the development of new engine offerings that would continue to meet emissions regulations, while providing “the reliable, durable products customers have come to expect from John Deere”.
For OEM customers developing applications not impacted by Stage V regulations, John Deere continues to offer its Integrated Emissions Control system in various configurations.
“The modular building block approach offered by the John Deere Integrated Emissions Control system offers greater application flexibility to help OEMs meet increasingly challenging machine design goals necessitated by the growing complexity in world emissions standards,” added Ryley.
Volvo Penta has launched two new 16 litre power generation engines for the genset market. The TWD1645GE is said to offers the highest power density in its class, reaching 800kVA, and with its sister model, the TWD1644GE, extends Volvo Penta’s range in this segment.
Penta said the TWD1645GE had been designed to produce up to 10% more power than previous models, and that its switchable rpm settings meant that it could be used anywhere in the world.
Giorgio Paris, head of Volvo Penta’s industrial segment, said, “This is an exciting move for us to be launching the highest power density engine in its class. We are setting a new standard in power generation with our market-leading offer.”
The TWD1645GE produces up to 800kVa at 1,800rpm (60Hz), and up to 770kVa at 1,500rpm (50Hz). The TWD1644GE produces up to 752kVA at 1,800rpm, and up to 717kVA at 1,500rpm.
New emissions controls for Stage V will see Volvo Penta adopting further solutions to limit gaseous and soot discharge. In the development of the Stage V solution, Volvo Penta said it had continued to cultivate the design philosophy used for the current range – keeping the highest focus on maximised uptime, minimised fuel consumption and ease of installation.
It will reveal more about its plans for Stage V at the ConExpo show.
Last year, Perkins launched a new family of 4 cylinder, 2.8 and 3.6 litre diesel engines delivering 45 to 100kW.
The Perkins Syncro range of common rail engines will meet multiple global emissions standards including Stage V and Tier 4 Final.
Perkins said the range was engineered to integrate into more than 80 different machine models. It said the high power and torque density would give OEMs the opportunity to move to smaller, more compact engines. It added that the fuel consumption, fast response and electronic integration OEMs needed to differentiate their machines was achieved through an increase in power density of 22% when downsizing.
Claiming an up to 8% improvement in fuel economy during machine use, the 3.6 litre engine offers powers up to 100kW with up to 500Nm of torque, while the 2.8 litre turbo aftercooled variant delivers a maximum of 55kW with torque of up to 325Nm.
The Perkins Syncro range is said to benefit from a suite of technologies including a common rail fuel system, electronic control, advanced air systems and aftertreatment configurations. A 90% commonality in the customer interfaces between the 2.8 and 3.6 litre engines gives OEMs the freedom to determine machine platform strategies that suit their businesses and markets, said Perkins.
Product concept marketing manager Oliver Lythgoe said, “OEMs want to sell machines in multiple regions to support business stability and growth, but the costs of designing a different machine for each region is unsustainable. Our range of 2.8 and 3.6 litre engines have been designed as a modular product, so versions of the engine for different emissions standards and fuel specifications can be used with the same installation and, critically, the same engine performance and machine integration.”
Cummins launched its latest generation of ultra-clean engines last year, aimed at meeting Stage V. It said the engines, across the 55kW to 300kW output range, would go beyond meeting Stage V to bring an increase in power and torque of up to 10%.
It said the Stage V enhancements to engine performance were being achieved by taking “an innovative approach to combustion, air flow and fuel injection systems”, allowing Cummins to realise the full potential of its 4-cylinder QSF3.8 and QSB4.5, and the 6-cylinder QSB6.7 and QSL9, without the need to increase displacement.
Hugh Foden, executive director of Cummins’ off-highway business, said, “Cummins is taking the opportunity offered by the introduction of Stage V regulations in 2019 to redefine engine performance in terms that our customers care about, with easier installation, simplified servicing and more responsive power delivery. In the process, we will be raising the engine performance bar higher for the industry.”
The Stage V engines will be supplied as an integrated system with the Single Module exhaust aftertreatment, developed by Cummins Emission Solutions, which it said was in response to the needs of increasingly space-constrained equipment. The Single Module claims up to 50% reduction in envelope size and a 30% reduction in weight compared with the existing Stage IV and Tier 4 Final aftertreatment systems.
It said the “efficient packaging” of the Single Module was achieved in conjunction with ultra-clean performance that removed 99% PM emissions, as well reducing Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions to “extremely low levels”.
Cummins heavy-duty engine duo – the QSG12 powering equipment up to 382kW, and the QSX15 with a 503kW top rating – are said to be ready to meet Stage V by retaining the DPF-SCR aftertreatment system used for Stage IV and Tier 4 Final applications.
For those larger, high-output machines, Cummins said its DPF-SCR provided an established installation package with ongoing continuity for equipment manufacturers as they readied their machines for Stage V compliance.
Cummins added that the increase in peak power and torque rise achieved at Stage IV and Tier 4 Final by the QSG12 and QSX15 would carry forward to the Stage V certified engines with no modification required to the engine architecture.
Kohler said its KDI range within the 30kW to 100kW power range showcased the company’s ability to offer “a clear, effective, and functional response” to a demand that was increasingly oriented towards compact engines.
It said they offered high power density, low fuel consumption and smooth yet uniform delivery of power throughout the RPM range, and required limited maintenance.
Available in a number of different models and power ratings, compliant with Stage IV in the 56 to 100kW power output range, the KDI range is based on the use of high-pressure common rail injection system (2,000 bar) of the latest generation combined with G3S solenoid-type injectors aimed at precise fuel metering during the injection process.
An electronically controlled EGR valve is included for recirculating the right amount of exhaust gasses that are liquid-cooled by a water/air heat exchanger. The system consists of two cooling stages.